- How do you calculate water for a cooling tower?
- What is the percentage of evaporation loss in cooling tower?
- Which heavy metal is found in cooling water treatment?
- What chemical is used in cooling tower?
- What is TR capacity in cooling towers?
- What are spray nozzles used for on a cooling tower?
- How do you maintain a cooling tower?
- What causes low pH in cooling tower?
- How do you calculate air flow in a cooling tower?
- What should be the TDS of cooling tower?
- What is blowdown loss in cooling tower?
- What are the types of cooling towers?
- What is ORP in cooling tower?
- What causes scale in cooling towers?
- How do you evaluate cooling tower performance?
- What chemicals are used for water treatment?
- How can we increase the efficiency of a cooling tower?
- What is makeup water used for in cooling tower?
How do you calculate water for a cooling tower?
Let’s calculate each component.Evaporation loss = 0.00085 x 10 000 x (100-85) = 127.5 gpm.Drift loss = 0.02% x 10 000 = 2 gpm.Blowdown = [127.5 – (5-1) x 2]/(5-1) = 29.87 gpm.Cooling tower makeup water = 127.5 + 2 +29.87 = 159.37 gpm..
What is the percentage of evaporation loss in cooling tower?
As air rises inside the tower, it receives the latent heat of vaporization from the water, and thus the water is cooled. As a rule of thumb, for every 10°F (5.5°C) of water cooling, 1% total mass of water is lost due to evaporation.
Which heavy metal is found in cooling water treatment?
Formation of iron sulphide almost always is associated with under deposit corrosion. Carboxylic acid phosphate derivatives have found wide spread use in cooling water system and are used at 1-4 ppm level.
What chemical is used in cooling tower?
Organic dispersants – These cooling tower water treatment chemicals can be used to prevent fouling and the accumulation of biofilms. Chlorine dioxide – This chemical can be used as a disinfectant to destroy microorganisms and prevent recurring growth.
What is TR capacity in cooling towers?
Chiller Refrigeration Tons Some commercial and industrial refrigeration systems are rated in Tons of Refrigeration (TR, tons). A ton is the amount of heat removed by an air conditioning system that would melt 1 ton (2000 lbs.) of ice in 24 hours. The heat required to melt 1 lb of ice at 32 oF to water is 144 Btu.
What are spray nozzles used for on a cooling tower?
Spray nozzles with plate are used to distribute water in wet cooling towers. Cooling towers are evaporative heat rejection devices, which take out the waste heat to the atmosphere through the cooling of water by the air.
How do you maintain a cooling tower?
Here are the basics – five steps to maintain industrial cooling towers and chillers:Remove Scale Deposits. Since your cooling tower works by evaporation, you will experience periodic buildups of scale deposits on your fill. … Ensure Proper Airflow. … Clean Your Tubes. … Inspect the Water Pump. … Treat Your Water.
What causes low pH in cooling tower?
Stronger acids have lower pH values. Imbalances in cooling tower pH occur because fresh water is composed of more than just oxygen and hydrogen. Minerals dissolved in the water play a significant role in changing the pH of the cooling tower’s water. These minerals can collect and create scale.
How do you calculate air flow in a cooling tower?
The formula is total heat removed (11.2) times pounds per minute of air (6.95) times 60 minutes per hour. 11.2 X 6.95 X 60 = 4, 670.4 BTU/Hr. Therefore, a tower with a 100 CFM motor at these conditions would be removing 4,670.4 BTU/Hr.
What should be the TDS of cooling tower?
Total dissolved solids (TDS): TDS in the circulating water is limited to 5,000 ppm maximum. Although TDS can be as high as 5,000 ppm in the circulating water, there are limits on individual ions such as calcium, which is typically limited to maximum 800 ppm as CaCO3.
What is blowdown loss in cooling tower?
Cooling tower bleed-off/blowdown is the flushing of a portion of high mineral concentration cooling tower system water down the drain, while simultaneously replacing it with fresh water. This process dilutes the system water mineral concentrations that steadily increase due to water evaporation.
What are the types of cooling towers?
The types of cooling towers based on the air flow generation are Natural draft, Mechanical draft, Cross-flow and Counter-flow towers.Natural Draft cooling towers use the design and shape of the tower itself to move up the air naturally using fans. … Mechanical Draft towers tend to use a fan to force the air.More items…•
What is ORP in cooling tower?
The Measurement of Oxidation/Reduction Potential (ORP) is by No Means New. The ORP measurement utilizes an inert metal (typically platinum) measuring electrode that develops a millivolt potential due to the transfer of electrons within the oxidation/reduction (redox) process. …
What causes scale in cooling towers?
Scale deposits form when the solubility of dissolved minerals in the cooling water is exceeded. Cooling towers function by evaporating a percentage of the water into the atmosphere.
How do you evaluate cooling tower performance?
The approach temperature is one of the two important parameters for evaluating cooling tower performance. It usually ranges from 3 to 5⁰C, i.e. if the cold water temperature approaches the Twb by 3-5 ⁰C, the operation of the cooling tower is considered satisfactory.
What chemicals are used for water treatment?
Chemicals that are used are for instance sodium chloride, potassium chloride, citric acid and chlorine dioxide. Chlorine dioxide cleansing serves the removal of organic contaminants on ion exchange resins.
How can we increase the efficiency of a cooling tower?
How to Improve Water Efficiency on Your Cooling TowerPiping Change. Simple repairs like a change to the water piping can help you mange your energy consumption. … Focus on Recycling. … Periodically Inspect all Equipment. … Increase Cooling Cycles.
What is makeup water used for in cooling tower?
Water makeup to a cooling tower is necessary to replace the mechanical carryout of water droplets (windage), evaporation, and the blowdown required to maintain a controlled solids buildup. Makeup water usually is added to the cooling tower basin. … This should be located in the relatively still waters of the pump basin.